Friday, April 21, 2017

Research Blog 6

Visual 

This visual represents the percentage of low-SES students who attend highly selective colleges and universities. This is a study from over 10 years ago, however, these trends are still prevalent today. If anything, these numbers have grown to represent these trends more strongly. It is obvious that low-SES students attend less competitive institutions and have lower acceptance rates-- my presentation aims to find out why. 

Lit Review #4

Complicating Conditions: Obstacles and Interruptions to Low-Income Students’ College “Choices”
by Rebbeca D. Cox

Citation: Cox, R.D. "Complicating Conditions: Obstacles and Interruptions to Low-Income Students’ College “Choices”." Journal of Higher Education, vol. 87, no. 1, 01 Jan. 2016, p. 1-26. EBSCOhost, login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselc&AN=edselc.2-52.0-84949662274&site=eds-live.


An image of Cox's novel, The College Fear Factor: How Students and Professors Misunderstand One Another. 

Rebecca D. Cox is an assistant professor in the Education department at Simon Fraser University. 
This article presents the results of a qualitative, longitudinal study of the high school-to-college transition for a sample of 16 low-income, Black and Latino students at two inner-city high schools in the Northeastern United States. Drawing on interviews with students over a three-year period—from their junior year of high school through one year after high school graduation—this analysis highlights the interruptions to students’ postsecondary plans. In this sample, students’ actual postsecondary paths, which included delayed college enrollment and two-year college matriculation, diverged substantially from the initial plans participants developed during high school. Ultimately, the findings illustrate how these students’ life circumstances engender decisions that preclude the kinds of choices assumed in the college choice model.

Key terms: 
postsecondary access: refers to entry into a postsecondary credential program. It encompasses a broad range of programs that students can complete after high school. 
social class: a division of society based on social and economic status 

Quotes relating to topic: 
"However, for Sofia, the most arduous part of the “choice” process involved negotiating the costs of housing, transportation, and books—all after college admission and acceptance. Her trajectory—from four-year college acceptance, to matriculation at a two-year college, to non-enrollment status—points to the difficulty involved in navigating structural obstacles, rather than Sofia’s individual deficiencies. The case of Shikera illuminates a similar breach in the traditional model’s explanatory power: Shikera’s registration efforts were first stymied at her local community college, then facilitated by staff at the for-profit college. Both of these cases offer persuasive evidence that students’ college-going plans and decisions are integrally linked to individual colleges’ admissions and registration operations. Indeed, the effects of colleges’ matriculation policies and procedures on students’ collegegoing decisions form an area of research worth exploring in more detail." (23)

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Research Blog #5



Bibliography 

Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü. "Who Are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the
Achievement of Students with Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds." Educational
Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 16, no. 2, 01 Apr. 2016, pp. 691-710.
.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1101216&site=eds-live.
Cox, Rebecca D. "Complicating Conditions: Obstacles and Interruptions to Low-Income Students' College              
                "Choices." Journal of Higher Education, vol. 87, no. 1, 01 Jan. 2016, pp. 1-26. EBSCOhost
                 login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1084293&site=eds-live.
Goldrick-Rab, Sara. Paying the Price: College Costs, Financial Aid, and the Betrayal of the American
Dream. Chicago and London:The University of Chicago Press, 2011. Print.
Huang, H. (2015). Can students themselves narrow the socioeconomic-status-based achievement
gap through their own persistence and learning time? Education Policy Analysis
Archives, 23(108), http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v23.1977
Montt, Guillermo. "Are Socioeconomically Integrated Schools Equally Effective for Advantaged
and Disadvantaged Students?." Comparative Education Review, vol. 60, no. 4, 01 Nov.
2016, pp. 808-832. EBSCOhost,
=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1118402&site=eds-live.





Monday, March 6, 2017

Literature Review Blog #3



Lit Review Blog #3

'Are Socioeconomically Integrated Schools Equally Effective for Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students?'

Guillermo Montt

http://resolver.ebscohost.com/openurl?sid=EBSCO:eric&genre=article&issn=00104086&ISBN=&volume=60&issue=4&date=20161101&spage=808&pages=808-832&title=Comparative%20Education%20Review&atitle=Are%20Socioeconomically%20Integrated%20Schools%20Equally%20Effective%20for%20Advantaged%20and%20Disadvantaged%20Students%3F&aulast=Montt%2C%20Guillermo&id=DOI:

CitationMontt, Guillermo. "Are Socioeconomically Integrated Schools Equally Effective for Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students?." Comparative Education Review, vol. 60, no. 4, 01 Nov.2016, pp. 808-832. EBSCOhost, login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1118402&site=eds-live.

Author, Guillermo Montt, pictured above. Source: http://kellogg.nd.edu/students/grad/montt.shtml

This study discusses the differences in achievement levels between low-SES and high-SES students, and how integration of the two in academic settings can be beneficial. The benefits of having low-SES students attend schools in high-SES neighborhoods, rather than their own, include a decrease in the achievement gap between low and high. A potential con, however, is that integrating low-SES students into high-SES student school systems can bring down the overall level of achievement because it lowers the achievement of high-SES students. Montt found that integrating low-SES students into more advantaged school systems benefits those lower income students, but poses a disadvantage for the high-SES students already in attendance. 

Guillermo Mont was born in Santiago, Chile, where he later studied sociology and statistics at Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. He is now following doctoral studies in sociology at Notre Dame. Montt is interested in the sociology of education and comparative education, more specifically studying educational inequality across school systems.

Key terms:
SES: socioeconomic status; a sociological and economic combined total measure of a person's work experience, and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation. 
PISA: Program for International Student Assessment, a worldwide study by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) of member and non-member nations of 15-year old school students' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. 


Quotes relating to topic: 
"The results presented above show that, in general, attending a socioeconomically integrated school yields higher achievement for disadvantaged students but an equal achievement loss to advantaged students when compared to disadvantaged students attending disadvantaged schools and advantaged students attending advantaged schools." (828)
- "Results show that there is no organizational “silver bullet” that simultaneously enhances the gain to disadvantaged students while mitigating the loss to advantaged students" (829)
- "Most countries are located in the lower-right quadrant of figure 3, indicating that disadvantaged students gain from attending integrated schools but advantaged students suffer a loss by attending such schools. The results imply that countries do not generally have a win-win situation." (831)

 This source is valuable in helping me to refine my research topic, by helping me to explore possible solutions to the socioeconomic issues that students face. It also shows me that the solution to these problems are not always so clear cut, and are often times, difficult to ease without creating some other type of problem. Because one of the solutions presented in the study, integrating low-SES students into better school systems also posed issues. the question is to integrate or not to integrate? This is something I would like to explore in my paper, and perhaps offer some type of solution for. 

Final Research Proposal-- Blog #4



Final Research Proposal
Blog #4

Mind Over Money? Can low-SES students meet the achievement of high-SES peers through hard work and effort alone?

College is supposed the place where you can change your destiny-- a place where you can rise above your upbringing, your color, your age, your gender, and become successful. If you study hard, you will succeed. Sounds simple enough right? As I grew older, I quickly realized that the simplicity of that statement came with a tangled web of exceptions. In my sophomore year at Rutgers, I took a class called ‘Sociological Analysis of Social Problems.’ Growing up, my father had always told me that the biggest indicator of how successful a person will be is how successful that person’s parents are. It wasn’t until my sociology course that I had concrete evidence of this fact. This course, along with a number of other sociology courses that I had enrolled myself in, helped me to understand the distinction between free will and a life that is predetermined. Humans tend to believe that they have complete control over their lives-- that he and he alone has the power to achieve success or is at fault for succumbing to failure, but it is not so black and white. Statistics show that most aspects of our lives, in this country, are predetermined for us based on our own or our parents’ economic status, race/ethnicity, education level, occupation, and the list goes on. For years I have heard people with differing opinions say that someone who is unsuccessful is “lazy” and if someone who grows up poor remains poor throughout adulthood then he or she did not “work hard enough”. These explanations bother me because I know that the explanation is not this clear cut, though many would like to believe so. My purpose of this research paper is to debunk myths like those stated above that unsuccessful or poor people are “lazy” and “do it to themselves”.
The general issue I am addressing in this proposal is how a student’s socioeconomic status affects his or her achievement levels in comparison to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds. It is important to research and understand this issue because once the public recognizes the contribution that differences in SES have on the ever-widening achievement gap, more can be done to reverse this trend.
The research question for my proposal will be ‘What are the ways in which the achievement gap can be narrowed amongst low and high SES students?’and ‘How can we increase the chances for low-SES students to achieve upward social mobility?’ I chose these questions for my proposal because they tie to one another.  I believe these questions will be more valuable than, say, asking a question on how a student’s SES status affects his or her chances at success because we already have studies/resources that we can access that show that students from lower SES backgrounds perform more poorly and have fewer chances at upward social mobility, on average. These questions, instead, contain challenges and controversy because there is no clear-cut answer on how to solve this-- it is something that researchers, educators, and government officials have been trying to solve for years. Therefore, through my research, I hope to be able to provide some feasible solutions, or at least which solutions would be the most and least effective.
From the readings provided in class, I will use specific cases for evidence, particularly from the Armstrong and Hamilton readings. I will also use ideas like having a parental “cushion” in terms of financial expenses, the role the government plays in helping low and high-SES students, privatization, and the ‘vampire effect’.
I have identified Armstrong and Hamilton’s case of Emma and Taylor from Midwestern University as evidence for what I am trying to prove. I am going to dissect their subtly different SES backgrounds in an attempt to try to determine what caused one woman to be more successful than the other? What ultimately limited one from making certain decisions that the other did without hesitation?
Additional questions that emerge from my research are, does high-SES make a student lazy and, in turn, perform worse? This is a question that STEMS from my research, and may be addressed, but I am not yet positive. Another question is which specific factors play a role in the decreased levels of achievement for low-SES students? My plan for research is to read through as many studies and academic sources on my topic as possible and outline them. Then, my plan is to connect them to one another, to the readings already covered in class, and back to my research question.














Bibliography
Armstrong, Elizabeth and Laura Hamilton.  Paying for the Party: How College Maintains
        Inequality.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2013. Print.
Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü. "Who Are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the
Achievement of Students with Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds." Educational
Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 16, no. 2, 01 Apr. 2016, pp. 691-710.
.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1101216&site=eds-live.
Carlson, Scott.  “When College Was a Public Good.”  The Chronicle of Higher Education 63.15
(December 2, 2016): A04.  Print and Web.
Huang, H. (2015). Can students themselves narrow the socioeconomic-status-based achievement
gap through their own persistence and learning time? Education Policy Analysis
Archives, 23(108), http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v23.1977
Montt, Guillermo. "Are Socioeconomically Integrated Schools Equally Effective for Advantaged
and Disadvantaged Students?." Comparative Education Review, vol. 60, no. 4, 01 Nov.
2016, pp. 808-832. EBSCOhost,
=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1118402&site=eds-live.
Nathan, Rebekah. “Student Culture and ‘Liminality.’” My Freshman Year: What a Professor
Learned by Becoming a Student. New York: Penguin, 2006. 146-153. Print.

Literature Review Blog #2



Lit Review #2

'Who are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the Achievement of Students with Low SocioEconomic Backgrounds'
Mehmet Sukru Bellibas, Adiyaman University 
http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=405c5967-82fb-4860-a7b2-cd075a0837d2%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=120

Citation:
Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü. "Who Are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the Achievement of Students with Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds." Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 16, no. 2, 01 Apr. 2016, pp. 691-710. EBSCOhost,login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login
.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1101216&site=eds-live.



Adiyaman University, where Mehmet Sukru Bellibas conducted this study, pictured above. Source: http://memim.com/adyaman-university.html


The purpose of this study is to investigate the individual SES factors that contribute to achievement or lack thereof, something that most studies do not pay as close attention to. This study, however, focuses on students in Turkey rather than the United States. The study asks the question of which student, school, and household factors are more important for low-SES than high-SES students. The study found that several factors, including mother's education, perseverance, home educational resources, quality of school educational resources, class size, and total school enrollment, were significant predictors of student achievement in math, reading, and science. The study also found that home educational resources, reduced class size, and ICT availability at home are the three most critical factors that provide the greatest contribution to the achievement of low-SES students in all subject areas. 
There is no info on author Mehmet Sukru Bellibas online, and any that there is is scattered and seemingly inaccurate. What I can say about Bellibas for certain is that he was a researcher at Adiyaman University in Turkey. 


Key terms: 
Disadvantaged students: students who do not have or have access to the certain resources, whether they be social, intellectual, financial, etc., which help other students to succeed 
PISA: Program for International Student Assessment, a worldwide study by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) of member and non-member nations of 15-year old school students' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. 

Quotes relating to my topic:
- "....several variables—including home educational resources, class size, and ICT availability at home—seemed to be more important for the achievement of low-SES students. According to the study results, a one point increase in low-SES students’ home educational resources was associated with a 12.02 point increase in their reading scores (p < .001). An additional unit increase in home educational resources did not make much difference among highSES students, however" (703)
- "The results indicated that home educational resources, reduced class size, and ICT availability at home are three the most critical factors that have substantial contribution to the 705 Bellibaş / Who are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the Achievement of Students with Low... achievement of low-SES students in all subject areas, compared with high-SES students" (704)
- "The reason why more home educational resources do not help high-SES students significantly improve scores can be explained through the fact that those students have already acquired a sufficient amount of resources that can prepare them for school, and the amount of resources beyond what they possess has no power for additional academic gain. However, even a small increase in the availability of home educational resources might produce considerable benefits for low-SES students, who often suffer from lack of minimum educational resources at home." (705) 

This study is important to my topic because, although it was not performed in the United States, it takes a look into the specific FACTORS that inhibit low-SES students or help them to succeed. I believe being able to hone in on certain factors will help me to provide a solution in my research paper and to dissect the root causes of lower achievement for lower-SES students. The more easily and concretely that I am able to identify WHY low-SES students struggle so much more, on average, than high-SES students, the more solid my paper can become. 

Monday, February 27, 2017

Literature Review Blog #1


Lit Review #1 

'Can Students Themselves Narrow the Socioeconomic-status-based Achievement Gap Through Their Own Persistence and Learning Time?'
Haigen Huang, University of Missouri

Citation: Huang, H. (2015). Can students themselves narrow the socioeconomic-status-based achievement gap through their own persistence and learning time? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23(108), http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v23.1977

Author, Haigen Huang, pictured above. source: https://miamioh.edu/ehs/about/partnerships-centers/centers/discovery-center/about/our-staff/research-eval-project-teams/huang-haigen/index.html

This academic source begins by discussing the achievement gap between students from low and high socioeconomic backgrounds. This achievement gap between low and high is around 30 to 40 percent higher for children born in 2001 than it is for those born 25 years earlier. This means, this is becoming an increasingly prominent phenomenon among today's youth, in particular. Haigen Huang contrasts these numbers to the overarching idea of the 'American Dream', i.e. the ideology that if you work hard enough, no matter your background, you will succeed. Huang ponders the idea that perhaps students from low socioeconomic backgrounds achieve less because of the way they see themselves. This source then has a lengthy literature review of previous academic articles and studies that have taken a look into this topic. The topic has ignited more research in the past few decades as a stronger connection between SES (socioeconomic status) and achievement level among students has been identified. There has also been more research on the topic as it is becoming more of an issue today than it ever has been. Huang then performed his own study on the topic. The research question at hand-- whether or not low socioeconomic students could reduce their SES-based achievement gap through their effort and persistence. The results from his study did not support a conclusion that individual students could make a difference to narrow the SES-based achievement gap. Huang does note, however, that there was a small portion of low-SES students who performed as well as high-SES students. Therefore, it is not impossible for students to narrow the achievement gap through their own efforts, though it is less likely. 

Haigen Huang has roughly nine years of experience in educational research. His interest in educational equity studies, with a focus in social class in gender, motivated him to get his Ph.D. from the University of Missouri-- Columbia. He has experience in leading projects that investigated ways to narrow the socioeconomic-status-based achievement gap, and has successfully published in several journals relating to educational research and SES students. On his website, Huang lists his work commitments to include advocacy for underrepresented populations to have access to equal learning opportunities.

Key Terms relating to topic:
- SES: socioeconomic status; a sociological and economic combined total measure of a person's work experience, and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation. 
- Achievement Gap: used to refer to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and gender. 

Quotes relating to my topic:
- "Studies conducted over the past 50 years provided overwhelming evidence to establish the constraint that SES imposes on student achievement." (2)
- "According to this large body of research, students from low-SES backgrounds show lower achievement due to various barriers such as lack of economic resources, low parental involvement, and limited access to high quality educational opportunities, for example, highly qualified teachers." (3) 
- "The SES-based achievement gap not only persists, but has also been widening. As Reardon (2011, p. 1) noted, 'the achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is roughly 30 to 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than among those born twenty-five years earlier.'" (3)
- "The data and results did not support a conclusion that individual students could make a difference to narrow that gap. However, this should not be interpreted to mean that it is impossible for any low-SES students to achieve as highly as their high-SES peers." (23)

This source is helping me to refine my topic because it focuses on the work and effort of low-SES students and how that relates to their success, if it affects it at all. This is helpful because many studies focus on other factors, but this one solely has to do with the efforts of the student. This source also helps to refute a common counterargument from others-- that it does not matter what SES you were born into, if you work hard you can achieve anything. Unfortunately, this is generally not the case.